Zveza društev gradbenih inženirjev in tehnikov slovenije
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Objavljeno v: Gradbeni vestnik - september 2018

Avtorji

dr. Katja Malovrh Rebec, univ. dipl. inž. arh.

MERJENI IN IZRAČUNANI FOTOBIOLOŠKI UČINKI ODBITE SVETLOBE NA LJUDI

UDK: 53.043:628.9.02

Povzetek

Pri načrtovanju osvetlitve izračuni le delno napovejo vplive svetlobe na uporabnike prostorov. Svetloba ima namreč poleg dobro poznanih slikovnih učinkov, ki jih možgani interpretirajo na podlagi odzivov čepkov in paličic, tudi neslikovne učinke. Ti ne pripomorejo k orientaciji v prostoru, temveč sporočajo telesu ključne informacije, ki vplivajo na tvorbo hormonov. Vrh te zaznave je v modrem delu spektra vidne svetlobe. Žal delovanja teh fotoreceptorjev še ne opisujemo s parametri, ustaljenimi v praksi projektiranja, zato so vplivi na uporabnike pogosto prezrti. Dodaten izziv pomeni praksa, pri kateri svetlobne učinke preračunavamo v lukse, kar pomeni, da jih množimo s povprečnim človeškim dnevnim vidom. Tak pristop ni primeren za vrednotenje neslikovnih učinkov, ker imajo drugo akcijsko krivuljo. Izmerili smo spektralno sestavo odbitih dnevnih svetlob v modelnem prostoru, ker nas je zanimalo, kakšne razlike nastanejo v slikovni in neslikovni zaznavi, če pobarvamo stene z različnimi barvami. Modra in vijoličasta stena neslikovno stimulirata opazovalca bolj kot slikovno v obeh opazovanih smereh pogleda, oranžna v obeh primerih neslikovno vpliva manj, pri zeleni pa je bila neslikovna zaznava bolj stimulirana od slikovne pri pogledu naprej, pri pogledu v mizo pa je bilo obratno.

Ključne besede: fotobiološki učinki, odbita svetloba, spektralna sestava svetlobe, melatonin, dnevna svetloba

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MEASURED AND CALCULATED PHOTOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF LIGHTING ON OBSERVERS

Summary

When designing light, the calculations only partially predict the effects of light on the users. In addition to the well-known image forming effects based on rod and cone responses, the light elicits non visual effects as well. The latter is not related to the orientation in ambient, but communicates key information related to hormones secretion. The peak of this perception is in the blue part of the spectrum of visible light. Unfortunately, the responses of these photoreceptors cannot be predicted with parameters currently used in the lighting design practice, so the effects on users are often ignored. An additional challenge is the established practice where the light effects are communicated in lux, which means that they are multiplied by the average human daily vision. Such an approach is not suitable for the evaluation of non-visual effects, because they have a different action curve. We have measured the spectral composition of the reflected daylight in the model room, because we were interested in the differences in image and non-visual forming effects of differently painted walls. Blue and violet walls stimulate observers' non-image forming perception more than image forming in both gazing directions. In both gazing directions orange walls stimulate non-image forming effects far less than the image forming ones. Green walls revealed bigger non image forming effects then non-image forming effects in the forward look, and the other way around in the gaze directed on the table.

Key words: photobiological effects, reflected light, spectral composition of light, melatonin, daylight

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